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     WS5 First Annual Research Symposium on “Energetic and Spiritual Processes of Healing”


6 Therapeutic Touch Affects Proliferation and Bone Formation in Vitro
A. Jhaveri, M.B. McCarthy, G. Gronowicz
; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030.
Objective Our goal was to determine if Therapeutic Touch (TT) had an effect on the growth and differentiation of bone cells in vitro.
Materials and Methods Human osteoblasts (HOBs) obtained from bones of patients undergoing orthopaedic procedures, and osteoblast-like cells derived from a human osteosarcoma (SaOs) were used. Cells were plated into culture dishes and qualified practitioners performed TT for 10 minutes, twice a week. Corresponding untreated cultures were used as controls. At 1 and 2 weeks, cell proliferation was determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and by immunocytochemistry for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). At 2 and 4 weeks, calcium content was measured biochemically and was visualized by fluorescent microscopy with calcein and phalloidin. Northern blots were performed to determine the expression of mRNA levels of Type I collagen, bone sialoprotein and alkaline phosphatase.
Results No significant differences were found in proliferation assayed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation at 1 or 2 weeks for SaOs and 1 week of TT for HOBs. However, TT significantly (p=0.01) increased HOB proliferation after 2 weeks. PCNA staining confirmed these data. No calcium content increase was observed in HOB or SaOs cells at one week, but mineralization increased in HOBs and significantly (p=0.004) decreased in SaOs after 2 weeks of TT, which was confirmed by calcein/phalloidin staining. Northern blots indicated an increase in mRNA expression for bone matrix proteins in HOBs and a decrease for SaOs.
Conclusions Therapeutic Touch increases human osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and bone mineralization, and decreases differentiation and mineralization in human osteosarcoma-derived cells.
Supported by NIH grant, P20 AT-756.

7 Gas Discharge Visualization measurements of the effect of intent on water
Daniel A. Lewis II, B.S.1,2*, Sabrina E. Lewis, B.A.1,2,3, Lewis Mehl-Madrona, MD, Ph.D.3,5, Iris R. Bell, MD, Ph.D.1,3,4,5,6,7, Gary E. Schwartz, Ph.D.1,4,5
; 1 Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 2Saybrook Graduate School and Research Institute, San Francisco, CA; 3Program in Integrative Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 4Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 5Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 6College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; 7College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Objective: Building upon our previous findings that the GDV is capable of discriminating various types, we investigated if intention and/or energy could be placed in water.
Materials and Methods: Highly purified liquid chromatography water (HPLC), purified water (PW), and Tucson tap water were used. Three experimental conditions were: (1) a control condition (no intervention), (2) an individual concentrated on bringing earth energy up through his feet into a bottle of water or syringe held in his hand, and (3) that same individual concentrated on the water emanating the best amethyst properties that it could. Trials were 2 minutes for each condition. GDV photographs were taken immediately after each condition.
Results: The differences between purified and HPLC replicated Form Coefficient [F(1, 22)=5.2760, p=.03151], spectrum [F(1, 22)=10.835, p=.00333], and area [F(1,22)=10.835, p=.00333]. The amethyst intention condition was statistically different from the control condition, on spectrum [F(1, 12)=11.586, p=.00523] and area [F(1, 12)=9.9069, p=.00841]. In addition, across all reported parameters earth energy and the amethyst condition showed marginally significant differences between themselves.
Conclusions: The GDV can be used to measure intention and the imparting of energy into water can be studied. The findings indicate that the use of amber glass bottles does not stop the flow of energy or intention into water.
Supported by NIH grants P20-AT000774-01S1 (DAL), P20 AT000774 (SEL, LM-M, IRB and GES), K24 AT00057 (IRB), P50 AT00008 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)

8 The Effects of Reiki on Bacterial Culture Growth in Relation to Psycho-Social Context
Beverly Rubik1, Audrey Brooks2, and Gary Schwartz2
; 1 Biofield Research Center, Institute for Frontier Science, Oakland, CA; 2 Department of Psychology and Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Objective: To measure effects of Reiki treatments on growth of heat-shocked bacteria, and to determine the influence of practitioner psychosocial well-being.
Materials and Methods: E. coli K12 was grown overnight and resuspended in fresh medium. Culture samples were paired with controls to minimize any ordering effects. Samples were heat-shocked prior to Reiki treatment, which was performed by single Reiki practitioners for up to 15 min, with untreated controls. Plate count assays were performed to determine the number of viable bacteria using an automated counter. 14 Reiki practitioners completed 2 runs (n=28 runs).
Results: No difference was found between the Reiki and control plates using paired t-tests. Half the runs showed control counts greater than Reiki bacterial counts, and vice versa. Individual practitioners did not produce consistent effects in duplicate runs. However, upon close examination of the pre-post psychosocial data, changes in social (p<.05), mental (p<.09), emotional (p<.09), and overall well-being (p<.08) were found to correlate with Reiki treatment outcome. For practitioners starting with a lower level of well-being, control counts are likely to be higher than Reiki-treated bacterial counts. For practitioners starting with a higher level of well-being, Reiki counts are likely to be higher than control counts. Although practitioners with control counts greater than Reiki have lower well-being scores initially, both groups improve to the same level of well-being at post-test.
Conclusion: Changes in Reiki practitioners’ well-being correlate with the outcome of Reiki on bacterial culture growth.
Supported by National Institutes of Health P20 AT00774-01. Qualitative Research

9 Becoming an Energy Healer: A qualitative exploration
Deogracia Cornelio, Sara L. Warber
, Michigan Integrative Medicine, University of Michigan, and Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan
Objective: To elucidate the concepts and processes related to becoming a biofield energy healer.
Materials and Methods: Nineteen participants were selected to represent a variety of energy healing modalities from a Midwestern U.S. metropolitan area. Semi-structured interviews elicited their descriptions of healing theory and practice. Interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify recurrent themes, conceptual categories and relationships. They were reviewed and validated by a second investigator.
Results: The healer and client enter the healing space and are defined anew as partners, as agents, as energy entities. The ability to help others heal is achieved through an “awareness” of and “an openness” to energy. The healer’s role is one of “facilitator” of the client’s own ability to heal, a “conduit” for the energy. Healers talk of “holding” clients in a “sacred” space of “deep love and compassion” to “meet the client where he or she is” and “work with them.” Thus, they must reach a state characterized by clear “intent.” This state demands a practice of self-care and self-management, which bring the healer to embody important aspects of their definition of energy, health and ethical practice. The healer’s identity is one of “living the practice.”
Conclusion: Becoming an energy healer extends beyond formal training and into the development of a cohesive practice informed by a complex system of beliefs and the principles of their traditions. It includes mentorship, overarching philosophical explorations and ongoing self-regulation. The healer state and identity are defined by what is conducive to health and promotes healing.
Funded in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program

10 A Phase 0 study of Spiritual Healing for patients with HIV/AIDS: Developing methods for spiritual assessment.
John Laird1, Ibrahim Jaffe1, Cheryl Ritenbaugh1,2
, 1The Jaffe Institute, Pope Valley CA, and 2Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Naturopathic Medicine, Portland OR
Objective: To develop methods for studying spiritual healing among HIV/AIDs patients, including identification of the most important spiritual foci for assessment before and after interventions, and parameters to evaluate these foci in relation to changes in biomedical and psychometric measures.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients participated in a wait-list controlled pilot study of spiritual healing for HIV/AIDS. The protocol included an introductory explanatory session, two intensive group healings 10 days apart, and 4 class sessions in between to help integrate the healings. At each of the intensive group healing sessions, I. Jaffe led the healers in qualitatively assessing the patients at several energetic levels and describing what appeared relevant to the patients’ health, well-being, and outcome. Assessments were tape-recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes and content. Changes and areas which resisted change from pre-baseline to post-second healing were noted. These form the basis for subsequent comparison with viral loads, CD4 counts, and psychometric assessment at baseline, one, and three months post healing.
Results: Qualitative analysis provided eight dimensions for consistent assessment of spiritual state: 1) energetic assessment of T cells; 2) energetic assessment of virus; 3) energetic relationship of patient’s T cells and virus; 4) energetic assessment of thymus; 5) willingness and ability to receive love; 6) relationship to divine purpose; 7) soul issues; 8) surrender to a spiritual path.
Conclusions: Identified dimensions for pre and post energetic/spiritual assessment provide a starting point for studying spiritual interventions in HIV/AIDS in relation to biological and psychometric outcomes, a first step toward integration of spiritual science with biomedical research.

11 Client Perceptions of the Experience of Dahn Yoga Energy Healing, Meditation, and Exercise
Bonnie Raingruber
, Center for Health and Human Services Research, California State University, Sacramento.
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine client perceptions of Dahn Yoga energy healing, physical exercises, and meditative practices.
Methods: A phenomenological investigation of 10 adults receiving energy healing and practicing meditation and Dahn Yoga was conducted. Caucasian adults between the age of 21 and 55 were interviewed. Themes that appeared throughout the interviews were identified using a Heideggerian approach. The results were presented to the participants for validation.
Results: Participants described being aware of physical sensations associated with Chi energy flow and feeling more energetic following Yoga, meditation, and energy healing sessions. Participants reported that their intuitive experiences increased as a result of these practices. Intuitive experiences included seeing colors/lights, seeing images that were described as having significance in terms of one’s life, noticing precognitive insights, and experiencing more vivid dreams. Participants mentioned becoming more flexible and experiencing physical improvements such as decreased back pain, enhanced sleep, decreased depression, and improved immune function. The sense of community in the Yoga center motivated individuals to participate in the healing sessions as well as the meditative and Yoga practices on a regular basis.
Conclusion: A combination of Yoga exercises, meditation, and energy healing is effective in increasing mental and physical flexibility, diminishing physical and mental problems, and enhancing individual’s reflective/intuitive abilities. By learning Yoga and meditative exercises individuals were able to continue experiencing the benefits obtained from energy healing provided by Yoga Masters.


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